Contact

Position:
Associate Professor
Address:
Valencia
Email:
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Phone:
+34963877007x79700

Image & Curriculum Vitae

Image & Curriculum Vitae :

Publications

  1. Joan-Lluis Ferrer, Elvira Baydal, Antonio Robles, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. A Scalable and Early Congestion Management Mechanism for MINs. In Proceedings of the 18th Euromicro Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing, PDP 2010. 2010, 43 - 50. URL BibTeX

    @conference{11260741,
    	author = "Ferrer, Joan-Lluis and Baydal, Elvira and Robles, Antonio and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Several packet marking-based mechanisms have been proposed to manage congestion in multistage interconnection networks. One of them, the MVCM mechanism obtains very good results for different network configurations and traffic loads. However, as MVCM applies full virtual output queuing at origin, its memory requirements may jeopardize its scalability. Additionally, the applied packet marking technique introduces certain delay to detect congestion. In this paper, we propose and evaluate the Scalable Early Congestion Management mechanism which eliminates the drawbacks exhibited by MVCM. The new mechanism replaces the full virtual output queuing at origin by either a partial virtual output queuing or a shared buffer, in order to reduce its memory requirements, thus making the mechanism scalable. Also, it applies an improved packet marking technique based on marking packets at output buffers regardless of their marking at input buffers, which simplifies the marking technique, allowing also a sooner detection of the root of a congestion tree.",
    	address = "Piscataway, NJ, USA",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of the 18th Euromicro Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing, PDP 2010",
    	journal = "Proceedings of the 18th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing (PDP 2010)",
    	keywords = "multistage interconnection networks;",
    	note = "packet marking based mechanisms;multistage interconnection networks;MVCM mechanism;virtual output queuing;scalable early congestion management mechanism;shared buffer;",
    	pages = "43 - 50",
    	title = "{A} {S}calable and {E}arly {C}ongestion {M}anagement {M}echanism for {MIN}s",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PDP.2010.36",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  2. Joan-Lluis Ferrer, Elvira Baydal, Antonio Robles, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. On the influence of the packet marking and injection control schemes in congestion management for MINs. 2008, 930 - 9. URL BibTeX

    @conference{10528096,
    	author = "Ferrer, Joan-Lluis and Baydal, Elvira and Robles, Antonio and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Several Congestion Management Mechanisms (CMMs) have been proposed for Multistage Interconnection Networks (MINs) in order to avoid the degradation of network performance when congestion appears. Most of them are based on Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN). For this purpose, switches detect congestion and, depending on the applied mechanism, some flags are marked to warn the source hosts. In response, source hosts apply corrective actions to adjust their packet injection rate. These mechanisms have been evaluated by analyzing whether they are able to manage a congestion situation but there is not a comparison study among them. Moreover, marking effects are not separately analyzed from corrective actions. In this paper, we analyze the current proposals for CMMs, showing the impact of the applied packet marking techniques as well as the corrective actions they apply.",
    	address = "Berlin, Germany",
    	journal = "Euro-Par 2008 Parallel Processing. 14th International Euro-Par Conference",
    	keywords = "multistage interconnection networks;packet switching;telecommunication congestion control;",
    	note = "packet marking;injection control schemes;congestion management mechanisms;multistage interconnection networks;explicit congestion notification;message throttling;",
    	pages = "930 - 9",
    	title = "{O}n the influence of the packet marking and injection control schemes in congestion management for {MIN}s",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85451-7_100",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  3. Joan-Lluis Ferrer, Elvira Baydal, Antonio Robles, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. Congestion management in MINs through marked validated packets. 2007, 260 - 7. BibTeX

    @conference{10266202,
    	author = "Ferrer, Joan-Lluis and Baydal, Elvira and Robles, Antonio and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = {Congestion management is a very critical problem tackled in interconnection networks for years but not solved yet. Although several mechanisms have been recently proposed for lossless multistage interconnection networks (MINs), they either have drawbacks or are partial solutions. Some of them introduce penalty over packets not really addressed to the hot-spots, whereas others can cope only with congestion situations that last a short time. In this paper, we propose an effective and efficient congestion management mechanism for lossless interconnection networks based on explicit congestion notification. The mechanism uses two different flags in ACK packets, a Marking Bit (MB) and a Validation Bit (VB), to detect congestion and warn the origin hosts. In this way, packets belonging to "coldflows" but stopped because of head-of-line (HOL) blocking can be distinguished from "hotflow" packets which are really causing congestion. In response, origin hosts can apply corrective actions only to the "hotflows", minimizing the negative impact on "coldflows"performance. Evaluation results show that the proposed congestion management strategy is able to avoid the degradation of network performance, regardless of traffic load and the location of the congestion in the network.},
    	address = "Piscataway, NJ, USA",
    	journal = "15th EUROMICRO International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing (PDP'07)",
    	keywords = "multistage interconnection networks;",
    	note = "congestion management;lossless multistage interconnection network;validated packet;marked packet;ACK packet;head-of-line blocking;marking bit;validation bit;",
    	pages = "260 - 7",
    	title = "{C}ongestion management in {MIN}s through marked validated packets",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  4. Gaspar Mora, Jose Flich, Jose Duato, Pedro Lopez, Elvira Baydal and O Lysne. Towards an efficient switch architecture for high-radix switches. 2006, 11 - 20. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @conference{10091275,
    	author = "Mora, Gaspar and Flich, Jose and Duato, Jose and Lopez, Pedro and Baydal, Elvira and O. Lysne",
    	abstract = "The interconnection network plays a key role in the overall performance achieved by high performance computing systems, also contributing an increasing fraction of its cost and power consumption. Current trends in interconnection network technology suggest that high-radix switches will be preferred as networks will become smaller (in terms of switch count) with the associated savings in packet latency, cost, and power consumption. Unfortunately, current switch architectures have scalability problems that prevent them from being effective when implemented with a high number of ports. In this paper, an efficient and cost-effective architecture for high-radix switches is proposed. The architecture, referred to as partitioned crossbar input queued (PCIQ), relies on three key components: a partitioned crossbar organization that allows the use of simple arbiters and crossbars, a packet-based arbiter, and a mechanism to eliminate the switch-level HOL blocking. Under uniform traffic, maximum switch efficiency is achieved. Furthermore, switch-level HOL blocking is completely eliminated under hot-spot traffic, again delivering maximum throughput. Additionally, PCIQ inherently implements an efficient congestion management technique that eliminates all the network-wide HOL blocking. On the contrary, the previously proposed architectures either show poor performance or they require significantly higher costs than PCIQ (in both components and complexity).",
    	address = "Piscataway, NJ, USA",
    	doi = "10.1109/ANCS.2006.4579519",
    	journal = "ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS 2006)",
    	keywords = "multistage interconnection networks;",
    	note = "high-radix switch architecture;interconnection network;power consumption;partitioned crossbar input queued;switch-level head-of-line block elimination;congestion management technique;",
    	pages = "11 - 20",
    	title = "{T}owards an efficient switch architecture for high-radix switches",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ANCS.2006.4579519",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  5. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. A family of mechanisms for congestion control in wormhole networks. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on 16(9):772 - 784, 2005. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{1490509,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Multiprocessor interconnection networks may reach congestion with high traffic loads, which prevents reaching the wished performance. Unfortunately, many of the mechanisms proposed in the literature for congestion control either suffer from a lack of robustness, being unable to work properly with different traffic patterns or message lengths, or detect congestion relying on global information that wastes some network bandwidth. This paper presents a family of mechanisms to avoid network congestion in wormhole networks. All of them need only local information, applying message throttling when it is required. The proposed mechanisms use different strategies to detect network congestion and also apply different corrective actions. The mechanisms are evaluated and compared for several network loads and topologies, noticeably improving network performance with high loads but without penalizing network behavior for low and medium traffic rates, where no congestion control is required.",
    	doi = "10.1109/TPDS.2005.102",
    	issn = "1045-9219",
    	journal = "Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on",
    	keywords = "message throttling; multiprocessor interconnection network; network bandwidth; network congestion control; traffic load; wormhole network; wormhole switching; multiprocessor interconnection networks; telecommunication congestion control; telecommunicatio",
    	month = "sept.",
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "772 - 784",
    	title = "{A} family of mechanisms for congestion control in wormhole networks",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2005.102",
    	volume = 16,
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  6. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. A family of mechanisms for congestion control in wormhole networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 16(9):772 - 84, 2005. URL BibTeX

    @article{8570709,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Multiprocessor interconnection networks may reach congestion with high traffic loads, which prevents reaching the wished performance. Unfortunately, many of the mechanisms proposed in the literature for congestion control either suffer from a lack of robustness, being unable to work properly with different traffic patterns or message lengths, or detect congestion relying on global information that wastes some network bandwidth. This paper presents a family of mechanisms to avoid network congestion in wormhole networks. All of them need only local information, applying message throttling when it is required. The proposed mechanisms use different strategies to detect network congestion and also apply different corrective actions. The mechanisms are evaluated and compared for several network loads and topologies, noticeably improving network performance with high loads but without penalizing network behavior for low and medium traffic rates, where no congestion control is required",
    	address = "USA",
    	issn = "1045-9219",
    	journal = "IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems",
    	keywords = "multiprocessor interconnection networks;telecommunication congestion control;telecommunication network routing;telecommunication network topology;telecommunication switching;telecommunication traffic;",
    	note = "multiprocessor interconnection network;traffic load;network congestion control;network bandwidth;wormhole network;message throttling;wormhole switching;",
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "772 - 84",
    	title = "{A} family of mechanisms for congestion control in wormhole networks",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2005.102",
    	volume = 16,
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  7. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. Increasing the adaptivity of routing algorithms for k-ary n-cubes. In Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing, 2002. Proceedings. 10th Euromicro Workshop on. 2002, 455 -462. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @conference{994333,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "In this paper, we show that routing algorithms may exploit not only the flexibility obtained by crossing network dimensions in any order but also that obtained in the same network dimension, thanks to the availability of bidirectional channels. We analyze the behavior of adaptive routing algorithms both for deadlock avoidance and recovery, exploiting this increased routing flexibility, and compare them with previous proposals in order to evaluate the contribution of the additional routing freedom on network performance. Simulation results show that this simple improvement in the routing algorithm allows one to achieve throughput improvements of up to 45% in networks with low radix, for a uniform distribution of message destinations",
    	booktitle = "Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing, 2002. Proceedings. 10th Euromicro Workshop on",
    	doi = "10.1109/EMPDP.2002.994333",
    	isbn = "0-7695-1444-8",
    	keywords = "adaptive routing algorithms;additional routing freedom;algorithm adaptivity;bidirectional channels;deadlock avoidance;deadlock recovery;hypercube networks;k-ary n-cubes;network dimension crossing;network performance;network radix;routing flexibility;simul",
    	pages = "455 -462",
    	title = "{I}ncreasing the adaptivity of routing algorithms for k-ary n-cubes",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMPDP.2002.994333",
    	year = 2002
    }
    
  8. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. Avoiding network congestion with local information. 2002, 35 - 48. URL BibTeX

    @conference{20093412265277,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Congestion leads to a severe performance degradation in multiprocessor interconnection networks. Therefore, the use of techniques that prevent network saturation are of crucial importance. Some recent proposals use global network information, thus requiring that nodes exchange some control information, which consumes a far from negligible bandwidth. As a consequence, the behavior of these techniques in practice is not as good as expected. In this paper, we propose a mechanism that uses only local information to avoid network saturation. Each node estimates traffic locally by using the percentage of free virtual output channels that can be used to forward a message towards its destination. When this number is below a threshold value, network congestion is assumed to exist and message throttling is applied. The main contributions of the proposed mechanism are two: i) it is more selective than previous approaches, as it only prevents the injection of messages when they are destined to congested areas; and ii) it outperforms recent proposals that rely on global information. © 2002 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.",
    	address = "Kansai Science City, Japan",
    	issn = "0302-9743",
    	journal = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)",
    	key = "Interconnection networks",
    	keywords = "Computer science;Telecommunication networks;",
    	note = "Control information;Global informations;Global network information;Local information;Message throttling;Multiprocessor interconnections;Network congestions;Network saturation;Performance degradation;Virtual output;",
    	pages = "35 - 48",
    	title = "{A}voiding network congestion with local information",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-47847-7_6",
    	volume = "2327 LNCS",
    	year = 2002
    }
    
  9. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. Increasing the adaptivity of routing algorithms for k-ary n-cubes. 2002, 455 - 62. URL BibTeX

    @conference{7205121,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "In this paper, we show that routing algorithms may exploit not only the flexibility obtained by crossing network dimensions in any order but also that obtained in the same network dimension, thanks to the availability of bidirectional channels. We analyze the behavior of adaptive routing algorithms both for deadlock avoidance and recovery, exploiting this increased routing flexibility, and compare them with previous proposals in order to evaluate the contribution of the additional routing freedom on network performance. Simulation results show that this simple improvement in the routing algorithm allows one to achieve throughput improvements of up to 45% in networks with low radix, for a uniform distribution of message destinations",
    	address = "Los Alamitos, CA, USA",
    	journal = "Proceedings 10th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing",
    	keywords = "adaptive systems;concurrency control;hypercube networks;network routing;parallel algorithms;performance evaluation;system recovery;",
    	note = "adaptive routing algorithms;algorithm adaptivity;k-ary n-cubes;hypercube networks;wormhole switching;routing flexibility;network dimension crossing;bidirectional channels;deadlock avoidance;deadlock recovery;additional routing freedom;network performance;simulation;throughput;network radix;uniform message destination distribution;",
    	pages = "455 - 62",
    	title = "{I}ncreasing the adaptivity of routing algorithms for k-ary n-cubes",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMPDP.2002.994333",
    	year = 2002
    }
    
  10. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. Congestion control based on transmission times. 2002, 781 - 90. BibTeX

    @conference{7568238,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Congestion leads to a severe performance degradation in multiprocessor interconnection networks. Therefore, the use of techniques that prevent network saturation are of crucial importance to avoid high execution times. We propose a new mechanism that uses only local information to avoid network saturation in wormhole networks. In order to detect congestion, each network node computes the quotient between the real transmission time of messages and its minimum theoretical value. If this ratio is greater than a threshold, the physical channel used by the message is considered congested. Depending on the number of congested channels, the available bandwidth to inject messages is reduced. The main contributions of the new mechanism are three: i) it can detect congestion in a remote way, but without transmitting control information through the network; ii) it tries to dynamically adjust the effective injection bandwidth available at each node; and iii) it is starvation-free. Evaluation results show that the proposed mechanism avoids network performance degradation for different network loads and topologies. Indeed, the mechanism does not introduce any penalty for low and medium network loads, where no congestion control mechanism is required",
    	address = "Berlin, Germany",
    	journal = "Euro-Par 2002 Parallel Processing. 8th International Euro-Par Conference. Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol.2400)",
    	keywords = "multiprocessor interconnection networks;network routing;parallel architectures;parallel machines;performance evaluation;",
    	note = "congestion control;transmission times;performance degradation;multiprocessor interconnection networks;network saturation;execution times;massively parallel computers;wormhole networks;bandwidth;starvation-free;network topologies;",
    	pages = "781 - 90",
    	title = "{C}ongestion control based on transmission times",
    	year = 2002
    }
    
  11. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. A congestion control mechanism for wormhole networks. In Parallel and Distributed Processing, 2001. Proceedings. Ninth Euromicro Workshop on. 2001, 19 -26. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @conference{904965,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Deadlock avoidance and recovery techniques suffer from severe performance degradation when the network is close to or beyond saturation. Many parallel applications produce bursty traffic that may saturate the network during some intervals, and increase execution time. Therefore, the use of techniques that prevent network saturation are of crucial importance in both deadlock avoidance and recovery strategies. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to reach this goal. However some of them do not work well under all network load conditions. Others introduce some penalty when the network is not fully saturated, or complicate network and/or node implementation. In this paper we propose a new mechanism to avoid network saturation that overcomes these drawbacks. In this mechanism, each node estimates network traffic locally by using the percentage of free virtual output channels that can be used for forwarding a message towards its destination. When this number surpasses a threshold value, network congestion is assumed to exist and message injection is forbidden",
    	booktitle = "Parallel and Distributed Processing, 2001. Proceedings. Ninth Euromicro Workshop on",
    	doi = "10.1109/EMPDP.2001.904965",
    	keywords = "bursty traffic;congestion control mechanism;deadlock avoidance;deadlock recovery;free virtual output channels;message injection;network congestion;network load conditions;network saturation;network traffic;performance degradation;threshold value;wormhole",
    	pages = "19 -26",
    	title = "{A} congestion control mechanism for wormhole networks",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMPDP.2001.904965",
    	year = 2001
    }
    
  12. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. A congestion control mechanism for wormhole networks. 2001, 19 - 26. URL BibTeX

    @conference{6867163,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Deadlock avoidance and recovery techniques suffer from severe performance degradation when the network is close to or beyond saturation. Many parallel applications produce bursty traffic that may saturate the network during some intervals, and increase execution time. Therefore, the use of techniques that prevent network saturation are of crucial importance in both deadlock avoidance and recovery strategies. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to reach this goal. However some of them do not work well under all network load conditions. Others introduce some penalty when the network is not fully saturated, or complicate network and/or node implementation. In this paper we propose a new mechanism to avoid network saturation that overcomes these drawbacks. In this mechanism, each node estimates network traffic locally by using the percentage of free virtual output channels that can be used for forwarding a message towards its destination. When this number surpasses a threshold value, network congestion is assumed to exist and message injection is forbidden",
    	address = "Los Alamitos, CA, USA",
    	journal = "Proceedings Ninth Euromicro Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Processing",
    	keywords = "multiprocessor interconnection networks;network routing;performance evaluation;system recovery;telecommunication congestion control;",
    	note = "congestion control mechanism;wormhole networks;deadlock avoidance;deadlock recovery;performance degradation;bursty traffic;network saturation;network load conditions;network traffic;free virtual output channels;threshold value;network congestion;message injection;",
    	pages = "19 - 26",
    	title = "{A} congestion control mechanism for wormhole networks",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMPDP.2001.904965",
    	year = 2001
    }
    
  13. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. A simple and efficient mechanism to prevent saturation in wormhole networks. In Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, 2000. IPDPS 2000. Proceedings. 14th International. 2000, 617 -622. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @conference{846043,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Both deadlock avoidance and recovery techniques suffer from severe performance degradation when the network is close to or beyond saturation. This performance degradation appears because messages block in the network faster than they are drained by the escape paths in the deadlock avoidance strategies or the deadlock recovery mechanism. Many parallel applications produce bursty traffic that may saturate the network during some intervals, significantly increasing execution time. Therefore, the use of techniques that prevent network saturation are of crucial importance. Although several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to reach this goal, some of them introduce some penalty when the network is not fully saturated, require complex hardware to be implemented or do not behave well under all network load conditions. In this paper we propose a new mechanism to avoid network saturation that overcomes these drawbacks",
    	booktitle = "Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, 2000. IPDPS 2000. Proceedings. 14th International",
    	doi = "10.1109/IPDPS.2000.846043",
    	keywords = "deadlock avoidance;deadlock recovery;network saturation;performance degradation;wormhole networks;computer networks;concurrency control;multiprocessor interconnection networks;",
    	pages = "617 -622",
    	title = "{A} simple and efficient mechanism to prevent saturation in wormhole networks",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IPDPS.2000.846043",
    	year = 2000
    }
    
  14. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. Simple and efficient mechanism to prevent saturation in wormhole networks. Proceedings of the International Parallel Processing Symposium, IPPS, pages 617 - 622, 2000. BibTeX

    @article{2000265175264,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Both deadlock avoidance and recovery techniques suffer from severe performance degradation when the network is close to or beyond saturation. This performance degradation appears because messages block in the network faster than they are drained by the escape paths in the deadlock avoidance strategies or the deadlock recovery mechanism. Many parallel applications produce bursty traffic that may saturate the network during some intervals, significantly increasing execution time. Therefore, the use of techniques that prevent network saturation are of crucial importance. Although several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to reach this goal, some of them introduce some penalty when the network is not fully saturated, require complex hardware to be implemented or do not behave well under all network load conditions. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism to avoid network saturation that overcomes these drawbacks.",
    	address = "United States",
    	issn = "1063-7133",
    	journal = "Proceedings of the International Parallel Processing Symposium, IPPS",
    	key = "Parallel processing systems",
    	keywords = "Computer system recovery;Congestion control;Fault tolerant computer systems;Response time;Telecommunication traffic;",
    	note = "Deadlock recovery methods;Wormhole networks;",
    	pages = "617 - 622",
    	title = "{S}imple and efficient mechanism to prevent saturation in wormhole networks",
    	year = 2000
    }
    
  15. Elvira Baydal, Pedro Lopez and Jose Duato. A simple and efficient mechanism to prevent saturation in wormhole networks. 2000, 617 - 22. URL BibTeX

    @conference{6590366,
    	author = "Baydal, Elvira and Lopez, Pedro and Duato, Jose",
    	abstract = "Both deadlock avoidance and recovery techniques suffer from severe performance degradation when the network is close to or beyond saturation. This performance degradation appears because messages block in the network faster than they are drained by the escape paths in the deadlock avoidance strategies or the deadlock recovery mechanism. Many parallel applications produce bursty traffic that may saturate the network during some intervals, significantly increasing execution time. Therefore, the use of techniques that prevent network saturation are of crucial importance. Although several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to reach this goal, some of them introduce some penalty when the network is not fully saturated, require complex hardware to be implemented or do not behave well under all network load conditions. In this paper we propose a new mechanism to avoid network saturation that overcomes these drawbacks",
    	address = "Los Alamitos, CA, USA",
    	journal = "Proceedings 14th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium. IPDPS 2000",
    	keywords = "computer networks;concurrency control;multiprocessor interconnection networks;",
    	note = "wormhole networks;deadlock avoidance;performance degradation;deadlock recovery;network saturation;",
    	pages = "617 - 22",
    	title = "{A} simple and efficient mechanism to prevent saturation in wormhole networks",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IPDPS.2000.846043",
    	year = 2000
    }